Prostat Kanseri

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Akciğer Kanseri ] Meme Kanseri ] [ Prostat Kanseri ]

PROSTAT KANSERI – TEMEL BILGILER

 

PROSTAT KANSERI

 

Erkeklerin prostatlari yaslari ilerledikce genisler. Bu ozellik genel olarak “iyi huylu prostate buyumesi” olarak bilinir (BPH). Prostat kanseri BPH’den bagimsiz olarak gelisir.

 

It is common for a man’s prostate to enlarge as he gets older. This is commonly known as “Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)”. Cancer of the prostate can develop independently of BPH.

 

BELIRTILER

SYMPTOMS

 

·         Difficulty in passing urine

·         Idrar yaparken zorlanmak

·         Passing urine more often than normal

·         Normalden daha uzun surede idrar yapmak

·         Pain passing urine

·         Idrar sirasinda agri-aci duymak

·         Blood in the urine

·         Idrarda kan gormek

 

Prostat kanseri gelisiminde etkin olan bazi faktorler:

Some factors that contribute to the growth of prostate cancer include:

 

·         Increasing Age

·         Yaslanma

·         Strong hereditary presence of prostate or breast cancer

·         Ailede prostate kanserli kisilerin bulunmasi

·         Bad Diet

·         Kotu beslenme

·         Exposure to heavy metals

·         Agir metallerle uzun sure ayni ortamda bulunmak

 

 

PROSTATE CANCER STAGES

PROSTAT KANSERININ ASAMALARI

 

Stage 1:  The cancer is only located within the prostate gland, so it is very small and hard to identify

1. Asama: Kanser sadece prostate bezleri uzerinde bulunur. Oldukca kucuktur, fark etmek zordur.

Stage 2:  Still inside the prostate gland the cancer forms a lump and becomes quite hard

2. Asama: Hala prostate bezi icinde bulunan kanser (tumor) sislik ve sertlik olarak belirginlesir.

Stage 3:  The cancer begins to spread

3. Asama: Kanser yayilmaya baslar

Stage 4:  The cancer has spread to another part of the body

4. Asama: Kanser vucudun diger organlarina ve bolgelerine yayilir.

 

 

DIAGNOSIS

TANI

Tests are carried out to determine whether the problem is in fact cancerous. Some of these tests include:

Problemin kaserojen olup olmadigini belirleke icin yapilan bir dizi test vardir.

 

PSA Test - Simple blood test that identifies the presence of Prostate Specific Antigen, which is a protein that is only produced by the prostate gland.  This is not always an indicator of cancer and an inflammation of the prostate causes this protein to increase. Further tests are then carried out.

 

PSA Testi-  Prostata ozgu antigenin (PSA) varligini saptamak icin yapilan basit bir kan testidir. Soz konusu protein sadece prostat bezi tarafindan uretilir. Her zaman kanser  icin belirleyici olmayabilir bu yuzden diger testler de yapilmalidir.

 

 

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) - Any irregularities of the prostate can be felt through the anal passage.

Rektal Muayne:- Anal yolla yapilan bu muaynede prostattaki herhangi bir anormallik farkedilebilir.

Trans-Rectal Ultra Sound Biopsy (TRUS) - An ultrasound is conducted to obtain an image of the prostate. The ultrasound then helps to locate exactly where the needle should be placed to take a small sample from the prostate. 

Rektal Ultrason Biyopsisi- Ultrason yardimiyla prostat gozlenerek nereden parka alinacagina karar verilir ve igne ile kucuk bir ornek alinir.

 

CT Scan (Computerised Tompography Scanning) - uses an X-ray to take images of the pelvis to determine whether the cancer has spread to the areas surrounding the prostate.

Tomografi- Analizi- X isinlari kullanilarak kasiklara bakilir. Kanserin prostate cevresine yayilp yayilmadigi incelenir.

 

MRI Scan (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) - Uses powerful magnets to create images of the pelvis.

Manyetik titresim olcumu- Kasiklarda olusturulan guclu manyetik etkilerle prostate incelenir.

 

 

Bone Scans - Will establish whether the cancer has spread from the prostate gland to the bones. 

Kemik Olcumu- bu yontemle kanserin prostattan kemiklere yayilip yayilmadigi olculur.

 

TREATMENT

TEDAVI

Treatment of Prostate cancer depends on a variety of factors inclusive of age, how advanced the cancer is and health of the patient

 

Prostat kanserinin tedavisi yas, kanserin hangi asamada oldugu ve hastanin saglik durumu gibi cesitli faktorlere baglidir.

 

Surgery – Inclusive of Radical prostatectomy or Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP).  The first method involves completely removing the prostate gland. There is a possibility in this form of surgery that patients become impotent or suffer incontinence (problems passing urine). The second method, or TURP involves the insertion of a tube through the urethra and then removing the blockage under a general anaesthetic.   

 

Ameliyat-  Bu ilk metot prostate bezinin tamamen alinmasi esasina dayanir.  Hastanin mudahaleden sonra kisir olma riski  veya idrara cikarken zorlanma  gorulebilir. Ikinci islem veya TURP ise genel anestezi altinda idrar kanalindan bir tup sokmak yoluyla tumorlu dokuyu cikarmaktir.

 

Radiotherapy - can be internal or external. External Beam Radiotherapy is when cancer cells are destroyed using radiotherapy. This treatment is usually done in stages. Internal radiotherapy, or brachytherapy involves implanting ‘radioactive seeds’ into the prostate. They then provide doses of radioactivity to the prostate over time.  It is usually carried out when the cancer is in stage 1 or 2.

 

Isin tedavisi- Iceriden de disaridan da isin tedavisi yapilabilir. Disaridan yapilan isin tedavisinde kanserli hucreler radyoaktif isinlar tarafindan yok edilir. Bu tedavi sekli genel olarak birkac faz halinde uygulanir.  Iceriden yapilan redyoterapi de ise prostate isin iceren seeds! yerlestirilir.  Ardinda, uzun sure gerekli dozda isin verilir. Bu metot genellikle kanser 1 ya da 2. asama ise tercih edilir.

 

Hormone Therapy - This involves shrinking the level of male hormones, or ‘testosterone’ to slow down or shrink the tumour. Hormones can be decreased through means of surgery (removal of the testicles) or drugs. Drugs that reduce the level of testosterone include either pituitary down-regulators (which stop the development of testosterone) or anti-androgens, which stop the effects of the testosterone.

 

Hormon Tedavisi- Bu tedavide erkeklik hormone testosteron genel olarak ya da sadece tumorlu bolgede azaltilir. Hormonun azaltilmasi, ameliyatla testislerin alinmasi ya da ilaclar yoluyla olabilir. Ilaclar testosterone seviyesini dusurur bu islem hormonu baskilama veya etkisini ortadan kaldirma seklinde olabilir.

 

ACTIVE MONITORING

HASTA TAKIBI

It is also common for a doctor to suggest that no immediate action is taken, and instead the prostate cancer patient simply waits to see if the symptoms get worse. This is known as ‘active monitoring’. PSA tests will be carried out regularly and the cancer will be closely monitored. This is to save the patient from the short-term effects of the treatments for as long as possible.

 

Doktor acil bir mudahale onermeyip prostate kanseri hastasini belirtilerin agirlasip agirlasmadigini anlamak icin gozetim altinda da tutabilir.  Buna hasta takibi denir. PSA testi belirli araliklarla tetkrarlanir ve kanser inceleme altinda tutulur. Bu yol, hastayi mumkun oldugunca tedavinin kisa surekli etkilerinden korur.

 

Possible ways that the effects of cancer can be subdued: 

Kanserin etkileri onlenebilir

 

·         Improve your diet: Eat less fatty foods and more fresh foods

·         Yediklerinize dikkat edin. Az yagli ve bol bol taze yemekler yiyin !!!

·         Be aware of any new symptoms and report them to your doctor, so that medication can be prescribed if necessary.

·         Yeni belirtilerin farkinda olun ve doktorunuza bildirin. Doktorunuz gerekli gordugu takdirde ilac yazacaktir.

·         If you are a smoker, stop smoking

·         Eger sigara iciyorsaniz hemen birakin

·         Practice hobby’s that encourage relaxation

·         Rahatlamaniz icin hobiler edinin

 

There are also many support groups that can help cancer patients with their struggles, and discuss common problems with fellow sufferers. 

 

Kanser hastalarina yardim etmek ve diger kanser hastalari ile sorunlarini konusmak icin bircok destek grubu bulunmaktadir.

 

 

Daha fazla bilgi icin:

Information Sources:

·         http://www.prostate-cancer.org.uk/

·         http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk

·         http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/

 

PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION – WHAT YOU CAN DO!

 

Although cancer prevention is not that simple, a lot can be done to prevent or at least delay of age-related onset of prostate cancer, as follows:

 

Whole Foods: Prevention through dietary changes

 

§         Tomatoes

§         Soy

§         Garlic

§         Green Tea

 

Antioxidants: Potential cancer fighters

 

§         Beta carotene

§         Vitamin C

§         Vitamin E

§         Selenium

§         Zinc

 

Maintain your prostate health

 

§         Eat Well

§         Do not smoke

§         Keep physically active

§         See your doctor regularly


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Son Güncelleme: 11 Temmuz 2004